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The Geeky Professor

How Does A Computer Works: Working of A Computer (Layman’s Terms)

How Does A Computer Works?

Are you curious about how does a computer works? Understanding the working of a computer can seem daunting, but it’s simpler than you think! In this blog post, we’ll explore the components that make up a computer and provide a comprehensive guide to the workings of a computer. From the hardware components to the software applications, we’ll explain the inner workings of a computer in easy-to-understand language.

So, if you’ve ever wondered what’s going on inside your computer and how does a computer works, this guide is for you!

Computers have become an integral part of our daily lives, and we rely on them for various tasks, ranging from work to entertainment.

What Is a Computer in Layman’s Terms?

Well, you have read a lot of definitions and technical article defining what is a computer and how does it work? but still, you reached here in this post, right? Lemme explain it in the simplest way possible.

A computer is like a magic genie in a box. You tell it what you want it to do, and it’ll make it happen, as long as you don’t rub it the wrong way (or spill coffee on it). It’s like a personal assistant that never complains (unless it’s crashing, in which case it’s throwing a tantrum).

It’s the ultimate multitasker, able to juggle dozens of tasks at once without breaking a sweat (unlike your boss). And let’s face it, without computers, we’d be lost. Literally. Have you ever tried to navigate a new city without Google Maps? It’s like trying to find your way out of a maze blindfolded.

So, long story short, a computer is a modern-day miracle, and we should all be grateful for the technological wizards who make it possible (even if we sometimes want to throw our computers out the window).

Technically, a computer is an electronic device (similar to a calculator but much more powerful) that processes information according to instructions given to it by a user. It can perform various tasks, such as storing data, performing calculations, displaying information, and communicating with other devices.

Essentially, a computer is a machine that can be programmed to perform specific tasks automatically. The term computer comes from the Latin word “computare,” which means “to calculate.” Nowadays, computers are used in many different fields, from science and engineering to entertainment and communication. They have become essential tools for modern society, and their capabilities continue to expand as technology advances.

Despite the widespread use of computers, many people don’t know how they work or how they operate.

In this blog post, we will explore the step-by-step working of a computer and shed light on the operations that take place within the machine.

Overview of Units for working of computer system

The working of computer system together is made possible by various units to perform complicated tasks. The units responsible are:-

4.PROCESSING UNIT further divided into

4.1 ALU (Arithmetic and logical unit)
4.2 CU (Control Unit)

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how a computer works diagram ?

working of a computer
How a Computer Works Diagram? Image Credit: ArtofTesting


The first step in how a computer works is input. Input refers to the process of entering data into the computer. This can be done using various devices, such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, or microphone. The input devices translate physical actions into digital signals that the computer can understand.


Once the computer receives input, it processes the data. The processing involves performing various operations, such as arithmetic and logic operations, on the input data. The central processing unit (CPU) is responsible for performing these operations. The CPU is the brain of the computer, and it controls all the operations within the machine.


After processing the data, the computer stores it in memory. Memory refers to the space where the computer stores data temporarily. A computer has two types of memory: random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM). RAM is volatile memory, meaning it loses its contents when the computer is turned off. ROM, on the other hand, is non-volatile memory, which means that it retains its contents even when the computer is turned off.


Once the computer has processed and stored the data, it produces output. Output refers to the information that the computer displays, prints, or sends to other devices. This can be done using various output devices, such as a monitor, printer, or speakers. The output devices translate digital signals into physical actions that we can see or hear.


The final step in how a computer works are communication. Communication refers to the process of exchanging data between computers or other devices. This can be done using various communication devices, such as a modem, network card, or wireless adapter. The communication devices translate digital signals into analog signals that can be transmitted over the network.

The hardware components of a computer are the physical parts that make up the machine. Here are the main hardware components of a computer:

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Hardware components responsible for working of a computer system.

The hardware components of a computer are the physical parts that make up the machine. Here are the main hardware components of a computer:

how does a computer works
How computers operates with all its Hardwares list below?

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The CPU is the brain of the computer, and it’s responsible for performing all the processing operations. It’s a small chip that fits onto the motherboard and is the most important component in determining a computer’s performance and responsible for the whole working of a computer.

Random Access Memory (RAM)

RAM is the temporary storage space used by the computer to store data that’s being used at the moment. The CPU can access this memory quickly, which is why having enough RAM is essential for a computer’s speed and performance.

Hard Disk Drive (HDD) or Solid State Drive (SSD)

These are the devices where data is stored permanently. The HDD uses spinning disks to read and write data, while an SSD uses memory chips instead of moving parts, making it faster and more reliable.


The whole working of a computer system depends on this motherboard which is the main circuit board in a computer. It connects all the components together, and it also has some built-in components, such as the sound and network cards.

Power Supply Unit (PSU)

The PSU supplies power to the other components of the computer. It converts the AC power from the wall outlet to the DC power that the computer needs.

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

The GPU is responsible for processing graphics and video. It’s a separate chip from the CPU and is particularly important for gaming or graphic design. I guess for you must’ve heard this term before as the games you play in your PCs is powered by this very GPU.

Input and Output Devices

These are the devices used to interact with the computer. Examples of input devices include the keyboard, mouse, and microphone, while examples of output devices include the monitor, printer, and speakers.

Overall, these hardware components work together to make a computer function. Each component has a specific role to play, and they all rely on each other to work properly.

Software components responsible for working of a computer system.

how does a computer works
how computers operates & working of computer system

The software components of a computer are the programs and instructions that tell the computer what to do. Here are the main software components of a computer:

Operating System (OS)

The operating system is the software that manages the computer’s hardware and software resources. It provides an interface for users to interact with the computer and manages tasks such as running programs, managing memory, and controlling input and output devices.

Application Software

Application software refers to the programs that users run to perform specific tasks, such as word processing, photo editing, or web browsing. Examples of application software include Microsoft Office, Photoshop, and Google Chrome.

Device Drivers

Device drivers makes operations of computer easy these are software programs that enable communication between the computer’s operating system and the hardware components. They allow the operating system to control and communicate with hardware devices such as printers, scanners, and sound cards.


Utilities are software programs that perform specific tasks, such as cleaning up the hard drive, optimizing the computer’s performance, or securing the computer from viruses and malware.

Programming Languages

Programming languages are used to write software programs. Examples of programming languages include C++, Python, and Java. Any operations of computer that you can imagine or have witnessed is developed in these languages.


Middleware is software that sits between the operating system and the application software. It provides a communication layer that enables different software applications to interact with each other.

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Overall, these software components work together to eMiddlewarenable the computer to perform tasks and run programs. Each software component plays a specific role in making the computer function and work efficiently.

In summary, the operations of a computer system of a computer can be broken down into five steps: input, processing, storage, output, and communication. Each step involves a different operation, and all the steps work together to perform various tasks that we rely on computers for.

This is how computers works , let us appreciate the complexity of these machines that allow us to use them more effectively.

how computers operates FAQs

How does a computer work 3 steps?

Input: The computer receives data or information through input devices such as a keyboard, mouse, or scanner.
Processing: The computer processes the input data using the central processing unit (CPU), performing various operations such as arithmetic and logic operations.
Output: The computer produces output by displaying the information on a monitor, printing
it, or sending it to other devices. This is how a computer system works.

How the computer work on its own?

A computer cannot work on its own without being programmed by humans or running pre-installed software. When turned on, the computer runs an operating system that manages hardware and software resources, allowing users to interact with the computer and run programs. The computer’s CPU processes program instructions and performs calculations, while memory stores temporary data and instructions. When a program is finished, the computer produces output by displaying results on the monitor, printing, or sending it to other devices.

How do you explain to a kid what is computer?

Explaining what a computer is to a kid can be challenging, but here’s a simple explanation:
A computer is an electronic machine that can store, process, and communicate information. It has different parts like a brain, a memory, and input and output devices. It can help people do things like write stories, play games, or do research on the internet. Just like how we use our hands to play with toys or our legs to run, we use a computer to do different things like drawing pictures, doing math problems, or watching videos. So, a computer is like a special kind of toy that we can use to do all sorts of fun and helpful things!

Which operations are performed by ram?

RAM is used to temporarily store data and instructions that the computer is currently using or processing. It allows the computer to run programs, load data from storage devices, and facilitate multi-tasking by enabling the CPU to quickly access the information it needs. In summary, RAM plays a critical role in the computer’s performance by providing fast and efficient access to the data needed to execute programs and tasks.

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